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Wellness and Rejuvenation Articles



  BONE MARROW (Bulalo)





Almost three decades have passed since cholesterol has been touted as the main cause of almost all diseases such that, the American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines in 1968 limited the daily intake of dietary cholesterol to 300mg. And since eggs contain cholesterol of 213mg/egg on the average, they came up with a recommendation that individuals eat no more than 3 egg yolks per week. Because of this, there has been considerable debate whether eggs in the diet contribute to elevated plasma cholesterol levels and heart disease risk, or whether this is just a simple but exaggerated view of equating dietary cholesterol with plasma cholesterol. 

Ever since the restrictions on dietary cholesterol and egg consumption were proposed, people began to fear cholesterol more than God. Their fear is unfounded because thirty years of accumulated research showed that dietary cholesterol has only a small effect on plasma cholesterol levels, and that dietary cholesterol has little relationship to heart disease incidence. Among these are the following:

A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women by Hu and colleagues from the Harvard School of Public Health found no relationship between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease in a population of over 117,000 nurses and health professionals followed for eight to fourteen years (Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, et al. JAMA 1999;281:1387-1394). There was no difference in heart disease relative risk between those who consumed less than one egg a week and those who ate more than one egg a day. The investigators followed 80,082 women for 14 years and 37,851 men for 8 years and looked at the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease and stroke as related to daily egg consumption determined by food frequency questionnaires. As shown in the figure, weekly egg consumption was unrelated to the relative risk of coronary heart disease in either the men or the women. Similar data were obtained for stroke relative risk. Interestingly, the investigators also found no significant increase in relative risk of coronary disease in a small subset of the study

group who consumed two or more eggs a day relative to those who never consumed eggs (multivariate relative risk for women was 0.76 and for men 1.10).
The authors did find that for diabetic subjects higher egg consumption was related to increased risk of coronary heart disease. The authors concluded that "These findings suggest that consumpti of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women."

The Nurses’ Health Study (Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1491-1499) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spiegelman D, Stampfer M, Willett WC. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: Cohort follow up study in the United States. Bmj 1996;313:84-90) have also reported that dietary cholesterol was not a significant factor in coronary heart disease risk in either.

The Lipid Research Clinics Follow-Up Study (Esrey KL, Joseph L, Grover SA. Relationship between dietary intake and coronary heart disease mortality: Lipid research clinics prevalence follow-up study. J Clin Epidemiol 1996;49:211-216), the Framingham Heart Study (Millen BE, Franz MM, Quatromoni PA, et al. Diet and plasma lipids in women .1. Macronutrients and plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women: The Framingham nutrition studies. J Clin Epidemiol 1996;49:657-663), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (Pietinen P, Ascherio A, Korhonen P, et al. Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men - The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:876-887) have similar findings of a non-significant relationship between dietary cholesterol and coronary heart disease.

Data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) (Tillotson JL, Bartsch GE, Gorder D, Grandits GA, Stamler J. Food group and nutrient intakes at baseline in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(1) Suppl:228S-257S) actually reported an inverse relationship between dietary cholesterol intakes and plasma cholesterol levels at baseline as well as an inverse relationship between egg consumption and plasma cholesterol levels.

Over the years, many investigators have reported that there is NO relationship between egg consumption and plasma lipid levels as well as between egg intake and coronary heart disease incidence (Dawber TR, Nickerson RJ, Brand FN, Pool J. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease.

Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:617-25; Gramenzi A, Gentile A, Fasoli M, Negri E, Parazzini F, La Vecchia C. Association between certain foods and risk of acute myocardial infarction in women. BMJ 1990;300:771-3; Fraser GE. Diet and coronary heart disease: beyond dietary fats and low-density- lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59: 1117S-1123S; Krauss RM, Deckelbaum RJ, Ernst N, et al. Dietary guidelines for healthy American adults - A statement for health professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation 1996;94:1795-1800).

Data from these epidemiological surveys are consistent with other findings as well. Analysis of the relationship between per capita egg consumption (data from the International Egg Commission) and cardiovascular mortality rates in 24 countries taken from the World Health Organization, indicates a significant, and negative relations (r = 0.54, P = .0053). Three of the highest egg consuming countries in the world: Japan, Spain and France; are countries which have the lowest rates of CVD mortality.While such simple correlation analyses do not consider the many dietary differences between these countries, it shows that eggs are not a contributor to CVD risk. Besides cholesterol, the essential component of all the cells of the human body, eggs contain other nutrients that are necessary for the human body to function effectively. The following are the benefits we get from the nutrients found in egg:

• Eggs prevent accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque. In a recent review, cholesterol researcher Dr. Maria Luz Fernandez of the University of Connecticut's Department of Nutritional Sciences summarized the results of a number of studies testing the effects of egg consumption on blood cholesterol levels. In children aged 10-12, in men aged 20-50, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, in whites and hispanics, the same basic finding persists: two or three eggs per day has little or no effect on the blood cholesterol levels of over two thirds of the population. Less than a third of the population, by contrast, are termed "hyperresponders." When these people eat egg yolks, their cholesterol levels do go up. LDL, the so-called "bad cholesterol," and HDL, the so-called "good cholesterol" both go up equally, so there is no change in the ratio of LDL to HDL, or of LDL to total cholesterol, both of which are considered better measures of the risk of heart disease than the total concentration of cholesterol.

LDL Particle Size — Pattern A vs. Pattern B
Moreover, the actual number of LDL particles do not change at all; they just get bigger. When your doctor measures your blood cholesterol level, the lab reports it by weight. In America, this is usually in milligrams per deciliter. When your "cholesterol level" is high, this means that in a given measure of blood volume (such as a deciliter or a tenth of a liter) the total number of cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein particles weigh more. This could mean that you have more particles, or it could mean that the particles weigh more because they are carrying more cholesterol. According to research that Dr. Fernandez cites in her review, it is the small, dense LDL particles that raise the risk of atherosclerosis, while the large, buoyant LDL particles are safe. This may be because small, dense LDL particles are much more vulnerable to oxidation. People whose LDL is primarily small and dense have three times the risk of heart disease as people whose LDL is primarily large and buoyant. In the egg-feeding studies, egg consumption makes the LDL particles of the "hyperresponders" get bigger, not more numerous. When they get bigger, they become less subject to oxidation and accumulation in atherosclerotic plaque. (Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9:8-12)

• Eggs help keep the eyes healthy. Egg yolks provide an excellent, highly bio-available source of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin (Handelman et al., 1999). Recent research showed the link between these dietary compounds and the macular pigment of the retina of the eye (Landrum and Bone, 2001). Lutein and zeaxanthin are the primary carotenoids found in the macular region. Lutein and zeaxanthin are antioxidants found in egg yolks and are believed to help protect eyes against damage due to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Research has shown that these antioxidants may be very important in reducing the risk of age-related macular degeneration (the leading cause of blindness in people over age 65) as well as the risk of cataracts. Those who ate eggs daily were less likely to have cataracts than those who consumed eggs less often (Moeller et al. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2000; (915s): 523s-527s).  Dwyer et al. (2001) reported that increased amounts of dietary lutein from green leafy vegetables and egg yolks could be protective against atherosclerosis by slowing the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in humans and animals.

• Eggs for weight loss.  A randomized study at Louisiana State University found that overweight and obese women who consumed a breakfast of 2 eggs a day for 5 or more days a week for 8 weeks, lost 65% more weight, had an 83% greater reduction in waist circumference and reported greater improvements in energy levels that the women who consumed a bagel breakfast with the same number of calories. This confirmed a study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, which found an egg breakfast induced greater satiety and significantly reduced short-term food intake compared to a calorically equivalent bagel breakfast. (both breakfasts contained the same calories and same weight mass) There was no significant difference between total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels.

American scientists found that eating 2 eggs every morning (as a part of a low-calorie diet) can substantially boost a healthy weight loss in all overweight adults (JS Vander Wal, A Gupta, P Khosla and N V Dhurandhar, International Journal of Obesity (2008) 32, 1545–1551). According to this research carried out in 2007-2008 by a group of the specialists at Pennington Biomedical Research Center, by eating 2 eggs for breakfast as a part of low-calorie diet, overweight people can enhance their weight loss up to 65%. The experiment involved 152 subjects (age 25-60 years) with high BMI. They were assigned to 4 groups, 2 of which were prescribed to eating a 2-egg breakfast every morning, and the other 2 were prescribed to eating bagels breakfast of the same total energy (kcal).
After 8 weeks of the study, it was found out that all the members of the group, who were prescribed to eating 2 eggs every morning in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet:
* managed to lose 65% more weight than the members of other experimental groups; 
* managed to achieve 61% greater improvement of their Body Mass Index; 
* reported about experiencing higher energy levels.

• Egg increases adiponectine, which modulates glucose tolerance. A study published in February 20 in the journal of Nutrition & Metabolism (Joseph C Ratliff, Gisella Mutungi, Michael J Puglisi, Jeff S Volek and Maria Luz Fernandez, Nutrition & Metabolism 2008, 5:6) concluded that a Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) with daily intake of eggs decreased plasma CRP and increased plasma adiponectin compared to a CRD without eggs. These findings indicate that eggs make a significant contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of CRD, possibly due to the presence of cholesterol, which increases HDL-C and to the antioxidant lutein which modulates certain inflammatory responses.

This study placed and observed overweight men ages 40-70 on carbohydrate restricted diets.  One group ate three eggs a day, the other ate the same quantity of fat-free, cholesterol-free egg substitute (gag). Both groups lost weight, but the egg-eating group did even better; they showed a reduction in risk factors for coronary heart disease, particularly a reduction in types of inflammation closely associated with heart disease risk.  People in the egg-eating group showed an increase in protective hormones like adiponectin, which modulates glucose tolerance and is negatively associated with body fat percentage.  They also showed a reduction in C-reactive protein, whose prevalence is associated with high risk of heart failure.  The egg-eaters experienced an increase not only in HDL cholesterol, but specifically the large HDL particles that are hypothesized to be protective against heart disease while the egg-substitute-eaters didn’t experience any of these additional benefits.

Betaine, found mostly in eggs and liver lowers risk for neural tube defects and cardiovascular disease. Researchers from the Netherlands reported that the nutrient-betaine, has the capability of decreasing elevated plasma total homocysteine concentrations, considered a risk factor for giving birth to a child with neural tube defects and for cardiovascular disease. Also, they noted that betaine has been shown to substantially decrease homocysteine levels in patients with a condition known as homocystinuria, and they therefore theorized that it could have the same benefit in healthy patients as well  (Ingeborg A. Brouwer; Petra Verhoef; Rob Urgert, Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2546-2547). Additionally,  in a review conducted on Betaine’s effect on human nutrition (Stuart AS Craig, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 3, 539-549, September 2004), this nutrient that is obtain from foods that contain either betaine or choline-containing compounds found in egg, wheat germ, sugar beets, etc. exerts many health benefits like:
* Betaine is a lipotrope—something that prevents or reduces accumulation of fat in the liver. Studies on healthy and diabetic animals show that a high-fat diet leads to hepatic steatosis that is prevented by ingestion of betaine or choline (Mehta K, Van Thiel DH, Shah N, Mobarhan S. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: pathogenesis and the role of antioxidants. Nutr Rev 2002;60:289–93. [Medline] ;  Best CH, Huntsman ME. The effects of the components of lecithine upon digestion of fat in the liver. J Physiol 1932;75:405–12;  Best CH. The role of the liver in the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. Lancet 1934;226:1274–7). Hepatic steatosis also occurs as result of a sucrose-only diet (Best CH, Huntsman ME. The effects of the components of lecithine upon digestion of fat in the liver. J Physiol 1932;75:405–12) or a diet low in both lipotrope and fat (Best CH, Ferguson GC, Hershey JM. Choline and liver fat in diabetic dogs. J Physiol 1933;79:94–102). Betaine can prevent and cure cirrhosis in rats (Best CH, Channon HJ. The action of choline and other substances in the prevention and cure of fatty livers. Biochem J 1935;29:2651–8;  Webster GT. Cirrhosis of the liver among rats receiving diets poor in protein and rich in fat. J Clin Invest 1942;21:385–92), mobilize hepatic cholesterol and phospholipids in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet (Best CH, Ridout JH, Lucas CC. Alleviation of dietary cirrhosis with betaine and other lipotropic agents. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1969;47:73–9), treat hyperlipidemia (Sugiyama K, Akai H, Muramatsu K. Effects of methionine and related compounds on plasma cholesterol level in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1986;32:537–49), and be utilized in the synthesis of carnitine (Turpin P. A double blind study of the effectiveness of Beaufor betaine citrate ampules in the treatment of type IV hyperlipidemias. Sem Hop 1985;61:2420–34). Dietary betaine enhances the secretion of VLDL via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (Odle J. Betaine and carnitine. Feed Manage 1996;47:25–7) to form phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase knockout mice (Yao ZM, Vance DE. Head group specificity in the requirement of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for very low density lipoprotein secretion from cultured hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 1989;264:11373–80) develop hepatic steatosis and abnormal choline metabolite concentrations despite ingesting a recommended dietary intake of choline. This highlights the importance of the SAM route to maintain liver health. One hypothesis regarding the lipotropic properties of betaine is that it contains an electrophilic methyl group that ameliorates pathologic states induced by reductive and oxidative stress (Zhu X, Song J, Mar MH, Edwards LJ, Zeisel SH. Phosphatidylethanolamine N–methyltransferase (PEMT) knockout mice have hepatic steatosis and abnormal hepatic choline metabolite concentrations despite ingesting a recommended dietary intake of choline. Biochem J 2003;370:987–93).  In addition, humans with diabetes exhibit hepatic steatosis, and early studies showed that dietary betaine improves liver function (Ghyczy M, Boros M. Electrophilic methyl groups present in the diet ameliorate pathological states induced by reductive and oxidative stress: a hypothesis. Br J Nutr 2001;85:409–14;  Rabinowitch IM. Effects of betaine upon the cholesterol and bilirubin contents of blood plasma in diabetes mellitus. Can Med Assoc J 1936;34:637–41;  White P, Marble A, Bogan IK, Smith RM. Enlargement of the liver in diabetic children. Arch Intern Med 1938;62:751–64.), including a slight decrease in plasma cholesterol and lipids, a substantial decrease in plasma bilirubin, a reduction in liver size, and better diabetic control. 
* Betaine can provide a methyl group to guanidinoacetate, via methionine, for the formation of creatine (Forestier M, Banninger R, Reichen J, Solioz M. Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase: gene cloning and expression analysis in rat liver cirrhosis. Biochim Biophys Acta 2003;1638:29–34). Overall, treatment led to an improved sense of well-being, less fatigue, greater strength and endurance, and increased desire for (and performance of) physical and mental work. Subjects with cardiac decompensation (arteriosclerosis or rheumatic disease) (Borsook H, Borsook ME. The biochemical basis of betaine-glycocyamine therapy. Ann West Med Surg 1951;5:825–9) and congestive heart failure (Borsook ME, Borsook H. Treatment of cardiac decompensation with betaine and glycocyamine. Ann West Med Surg 1951;5:830–55) had improved cardiac function.
* Incomplete DNA methylation may lead to genetic instability, senescence, and cancer (Bostom AG, Shemin D, Nadeau MR, et al. Short term betaine therapy fails to lower elevated fasting total plasma homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients maintained on chronic folic acid supplementation. Atherosclerosis 1995;113:129–32.;  Cooney CA. Are somatic cells inherently deficient in methylation metabolism? A proposed mechanism for DNA methylation loss, senescence and aging. Growth Dev Aging 1993;57:261–73;  Newberne PM, Rogers AE. Labile methyl groups and the promotion of cancer. Annu Rev Nutr 1986;6:407–32), and optimal "methylation diets," including betaine, have been suggested for the prevention and treatment of a variety of conditions (Blount BC, Mack MM, Wehr CM, et al. Folate deficiency causes uracil misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage: implications for cancer and neuronal damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94:3290–5).

Choline in eggs is an essential nutrient needed for the normal functioning of cells. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, the investigators studied the association of meat, egg, and dairy intake with breast cancer risk among 319,826 women who provided dietary information between 1992 and 2003. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models allowed estimation of disease hazard ratios (HRs). During median follow-up of 8.8 years, 7119 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. There was no consistent association between the risk for breast cancer and dietary intake of any of the food groups studied, with use of either categoric or continuous exposure variable models (Am J Clin Nutr. Published online June 2, 2009) but previous studies on Choline, found in foods such as eggs, was associated with a 24 percent reduced risk of breast cancer, according to a study supported by a grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), published in The FASEB Journal (Xu X, et al. Choline metabolism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based study. The FASEB Journal, published online on January 29, 2008).  This study adds to the growing body of evidence that links egg consumption to a decreased risk of breast cancer like:  
* A study published in 2003 by researchers at Harvard University found that women who reported higher consumption of eggs, vegetable fat and fiber during adolescence had a smaller risk of developing breast cancer as adults. Specifically, eating one egg per day was associated with an 18 percent reduced risk of breast cancer. ( Frazier AL, et al. Adolescent diet and risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2003; 5: R59-R64) 
* A study of Chinese women published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention in 2005 showed that those who consumed the most fruit, vegetables and eggs were significantly less likely to have breast cancer. For those that reported eating at least six eggs per week, the risk of developing breast cancer was 44 percent lower than for those who ate two or less eggs per week. ( Shannon J, et al. Food and botanical groupings and risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14 (1): 81-90)  Choline (in Egg) as an essential component of Acetylcholine can antagonizes Adrenaline effect, lowers heart rate, prevents Arrythmia and improves brain function (memory). (Badash M., Brain Food: Formulas for aware aging. Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, March 1998; Cohen EL et al., Brain Acetylcholine Control by Dietary Choline. Science 191:561-562, 1976. Mayall M. Your Nutritional Essentials: Choline. Natural Health 26(2) 155, 1996; Block W.,  Life Enhancement. August 1999:8-13).

In addition to playing a role in the normal functioning of all cells, including brain and nerve function, liver metabolism and the transportation of nutrients throughout the body, choline has been shown to:
* Prevent Birth Defects: According to population-based research, infants from mothers whose diets were deficient in choline were four times more likely to have neural tube defects such as spina bifida. This increased risk was observed even when other nutrients that help prevent birth defects, such as folic acid, were in adequate supply. (Shaw GM, et al. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betain and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160: 102-109) 
* Improve Memory: Research suggests that choline is essential for proper fetal and infant brain development. It appears that choline affects the areas of the brain responsible for memory function and life-long learning ability. ( Zeisel SH. Nutritional importance of choline for brain development. J Am Col Nutr 2004; 23: 621S – 626S) 
* Reduce Heart Disease Risk: Choline, like folate, is involved in breaking down homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood that may be associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In fact, research shows that choline deficiency results in increased homocysteine levels. (Da Costa K-A, et al. Choline deficiency in mice and humans is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentration after a mehtionine load. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85:1275-1285) This may help to explain why 30 years of research have shown that healthy adults can consume eggs without increasing their risk of heart disease. (Lee A and Griffin B. Dietary cholesterol, eggs and coronary heart disease risk in perspective. Nutrition Bulletin (British Nutrition Foundation) 2006: 31: 21-27)  

EGGS prevent Cancer of the Pancreas. There is an inverse association in the risk of pancreatic cancer with egg consumption (P for men 0.08; for women 0.001)(Chow et al., Division of Epidemiology, Columbia University, School of Public Health, N.Y. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995 Dec.; 4(8):885-893)

Recent studies have suggested that healthy people can eat eggs in moderation without increasing their heart disease risk, Wu and Majumder write. In addition, studies have hinted that certain egg proteins might have effects similar to ACE inhibitors, prescription drugs used to treat high blood pressure. Wu and Majumder identified several different peptides in boiled and fried eggs that act as potent ACE inhibitors. Enzymes in the stomach and small intestine produce these peptides from eggs. Fried eggs had the highest ACE inhibitory activity, they report (Majumder et al. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Simulated in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Cooked Eggs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009; 57 (2): 471 DOI: 10.1021/jf8028557). "Our study showed further evidence that a number of bioactive peptides may be generated while digesting egg proteins, which would provide additional benefits for reducing another well-identified risk of heart disease," Wu said by email. "Egg has been part of human diets for centuries and therefore it is safe to consume eggs." 

Cysteine in Egg as glutathione peroxidase is a potent antioxidant capable of deactivating Hydrogen peroxide free radical, Hydroxyl free radical, Singlet oxygen free radical and Superoxide free radical (Farman, H., et al,  Role of Selenium and Sulfur-containing Amino Acids in protection against Otoxicity. Laboratory Investigation 49 148-15: 1993)

Essential Fatty Acids in eggs especially that of free-ranged hens have a 5:1 ratio of omega 6 to omega3, may reduce the risk of thrombosis, leucocyte adhesion, vascular wall inflammation, and myocardial arrythmia (Lands 2000; Leaf et al. 2000)

* Firstly, Dr Uffe Ravnskov, the founder of The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics decided to test the theory that eggs raised blood cholesterol levels. So he ate 59 eggs in nine days. His cholesterol went down by 11%.
* The subject of this case was an 88-year-old man living alone in a retirement community. He was healthy except for having Alzheimer's disease. He also had a compulsive disorder which led him to consume, in addition to regular meals, 25 soft-boiled eggs every day. Remarkably, there was good evidence from several sources that this egg-eating behavior had been going on for at least 15 years. 

The patient's medical records documented numerous serum cholesterol measurements within the normal range. A number of metabolic studies indicated that the patient had several compensatory mechanisms in place which enabled him to maintain normal blood cholesterol concentrations in the face of longstanding and massive cholesterol intake: 
* Marked reduction in cholesterol absorption - the mechanism for this effect is not known 
* Greatly increased synthesis of bile acids - the patient synthesized roughly twice the mass of bile acids as control subjects 
* Reduced endogenous cholestrol synthesis 

(Kern F: Normal plasma cholesterol in an 88-year-old who eats 25 eggs a day. New Eng J Med 324:986, 1991.)

Vilhjalmur Stefansson tells a lovely story in his autobiography, Discovery, about Lord Strathcona, Canada's High Commissioner to England in the late 19th century. Lord Strathcona ate very little other than eggs — and lived well into his 94 year. Stefansson writes:

"My first contacts with him were merely casual occasions for him to use his position as Canada's High Commissioner to expedite the work of the Canadian Arctic Expedition. It was not long, however, before there grew up between us the bond of a common interest — an interest in dietary matters. I told him what I had learned from the Eskimos, and he told me that years ago in Canada he had begun a regimen all his own by skipping lunch and ultimately breakfast too. Then he had begun to wonder why, since he liked some things better than others, he should bother to eat something different on Tuesday when he had liked what he had eaten on Monday better. This led to his questioning what he really did like and, when he got the answer, eating nothing else — eggs, milk, and butter. Although this combination would not have made up my favorite meal, much as I favor butter, the point was that Strathcona and I were in agreement on the feeling that the longer a man ate one complete food exclusively, the more likely he was to relish it.
"I had many opportunities to observe the High Commissioner while I was in London, for he frequently invited me to dinner at his home in Grosvenor Square, saying that So-and-So would be present and he thought I would like to meet him. Strathcona, a broad-shouldered man taller than six feet, would be seated at one end of the long table, Lady Strathcona at the other. As course after course was served to the rest of us, he would converse, drinking a sip or two of each wine as it was poured. Sometime during the middle of the dinner, his tray was brought: several medium-soft boiled eggs broken into a large bowl, with plenty of butter and with extra butter in a side dish, and, I believe, a quart of whole milk, or perhaps half-and-half. My impression is that they also brought him toast, but that he barely nibbled it, using it a bit as if it were a napkin."

“The Doctor of the Future will  give no medicine, but will interest his patients in the care  of the human frame in Diet, and in the cause and prevention of disease.”
        -  Thomas A. Edison